*Vd. Maneesha Kothekar- HOD & Guide *Vd Swati M. Kamble – PG
*Shree Auyrved College, Nagpur.
The dentition is one of the most important landmark in assessing the growth and development of a child. Dentistry is not a specialized branch mentioned in Ayurveda but there are so many references available related to this subject. Acharya Kashyapa is the pioneer of this field. He gave more informative data about formation of teeth, deciduous teeth, permanent teeth, nomenclature of teeth, features of healthy teeth etc. Acharya Vagbhata has mentioned dant and dantamulgat vyadhies in Shalakyatantra which is one of the branch of ayurveda . Acharya Sushruta also mentioned about dantamulagat vyadhi and its treatment.
Ayurveda is an ancient science based on herbal therapy believes that prevention is always better than cure “Swasthya syaswasthya rakshnam”. Tooth is such an important structure, which serve the purpose of chewing and grinding the food to make it easy for digestion and also in pronunciation of word useful for communication. Today’s unhealthy lifestyle is more harmful causing more damage to teeth. More use of chocolates, cold drinks, pizza, burger, etc sticky food, bad habits like bed tea, lack of time for brushing and flossing causing more damage to teeth. So now it is the time to concentrate on our teeth for beautiful smile by replacing unhealthy habits with healthy habits.
Etymology of teeth (Dantodbheda): –
According to Acharya Vagbhata, teeth are originated from Asthi and Majjadhatu. During balyawastha these dhatus are not fully developed so the deciduous teeth exfoliated at an early age and new teeth starts to erupt as these dhatus are developing properly. There are total 32 teeth out of which eight are sakrijjata, which appears only once, and 28 are dwija, which appears twice. Also there is no re-eruption of teeth at old age because of inadequacy of these dhatus. If there is loss of teeth due to trauma, again there is no eruption of teeth because of sudden loss of dhatu (injury to blood vessels causing excessive hemorrhage and lack of nutrition). In Kashyapa Samhita “Dantajanmika” Adhyay it is mentioned that blood which is deposited in the socket of teeth during intra-uterine life, the same blood of normally growing child manifest in the form of teeth. He also says that teeth comes out of the gums for the first time in the same month corresponding to the month of fetus in which the tooth was inseminated. After birth in what so ever month the teeth appear, they fall and reappear in the same year. An insemination, manifestation, eruption, development, falling, reappearance, cessation, stability, decaying, looseness, firmness and weakness of the teeth depend upon racial specification, period of insemination, nature, imitation of parents and their own deeds.
Types of Dantotpatti:-
On the basis of eruption of teeth are of four types:-
Samudga:- Develop in Kshaya ( malnourished) condition of child, so more tendency of falling of teeth.
Samvrita:- Inauspicious and dirty teeth.
Vivrita:- They are separated from each other therefore get regularly affected by salivation, get easily discolored and diseased as they remain uncovered.
Dantasampat:- Auspicious teeth having all the characteristics of healthy teeth. The normal healthy teeth are complete, even, compact, white, unctuous, smooth, clean, disease free and slight protuberance of teeth of upper jaw. Upper three types shows unhealthy eruption of teeth whereas last one shows all features of healthy teeth.
Period of Dentition (Dantotpatti kala):-
Acharya Kashyapa also mentioned the qualities of the teeth erupt in different month as below:-
At 4 th month: Weak, fragile and diseased.
At 5th month: Mobile, sensitive and diseased.
At 6 th month: Mal occluded, dirty, discolored and with caries.
At 7 th month: Tooth having two pockets (two teeth erupted together), broken, dry, irregular and uneven.
At 8 th month: Having best qualities ie. Dantsampat.
According to Acharya Vagbhata, the life span of a child can be decided on the basis of month of eruption of teeth. In a child who may possess long life the tooth eruption will start by eighth month or later, whereas in child who has lesser longevity of life, tooth eruption may start as earlier by fourth month. The appearance of teeth in girls is early and causes less trouble due to porousness of teeth and soft gums, it is noted that in boys it takes more time and erupt with more trouble due to compactness of teeth and stable nature of gums.
Nomenclature of the teeth :-
The middle two teeth in the upper row are named as Rajdanta (central incisor- they are sacred, so in breakage of these one is unfit for homage), on both side of Rajdanta are Vasta, on lateral side of Vasta are Danstra, rest, grow in original roots are called Hanyavya, similarly these are in lower jaw.
Complications during Dentition and its pathogenesis :-
Asthi and Majja dhatu on maturation reach to the socket of tooth and produce some irritation. As the Kapha is situated in gums the child feel itching sensation on gums. So he may bite the breast during sucking, whatever object he find in his hand he put it into mouth and press it against gums to relieve itching and pain. This causes vitiation of Vayu, this vitiated Vayu in association with Kapha reaches to Asthi and Majja and spreads in whole body. At the same time it also vitiates other Dhatus and Malas along with pitta and produces various complication during dentition like fever, diarrhoea, cough, vomiting, headache, abhishandya, pothaki, visarpa etc.
Dental care :-
- During pregnancy:
As insemination of teeth occurs during fetal period so it is important that mother should follow the Garbhini Paricharya properly. Otherwise if mother takes more shleshmal diet during pregnancy may lead to child born with teeth, which is considerd as abnormal. Abnormal according to Ayurveda. Excessive laughing (atihasya) during pregnancy causes black teeth, lips, palate and tongue in fetus.
- During dentition period:-
When dentition occurs with more trouble then for easy dentition mix the powder of Pippali with honey and should rub on the gums. To relieve all the general complication of dentition Acharya Vagbhata has advice to take Kshyapokta Samangadi Ghrita which is prepared as followes:- Ghrita medicated with decoction of Manjistha. Dhatakipushpa. Mashparni. Mudgaparni.Mung, Bilwa, Karpas seeds, added with milk & Mastu. Proper diet to child should be provided like milk along with laghu and bruhaniya diet. Milk to fulfill the requirement of calcium.
- In day to day life dental care can be done according to a Ayurveda as follows:-
Dantadhawan:- Ayurveda mentioned about the Dantadhawan ie. Cleaning of teeth with herbal brush.. Brushing should be done in the morning and after every meal to prevent disease. Length of herbal brush should be 12 angulas (9 inches) with thickness one’s little finger. These herb sticks must be Kashaya (astringent), Katu (acrid), or Tikta (bitter) in taste. Commonly used herbal trees are Nimba, Khadir, Karanja, Babbula, Arka, Arjuna etc. One of the end portion of bark should be crushed by chewing and use slowly in down to upward direction avoiding injury to gums. It helps to remove food particles, tarter of neck of tooth and mucous secretion collected in mouth and tongue over the night.
Gandush:- It helps to remove viscid secretions and impacted food particles, it helps to perceive the taste better, to heal the ulcers and keep the tooth immobilized. Gandush helps to anchorage of teeth in bony sockets. For the purpose of gandush according to condition different herbal medicines can be used for example til tail, ghnta, milk, triphalakashaya etc. In this way we can take care of our teeth to prevent dental disorder.