* Dr. Roshan G. Wankhade, ** Dr. Vijay K. Done, *Dr. Sunil A. Bakare, *Dr.S. R. Dhanurkar
*Y.A.C.P.G.T. & R.C., Kolhapur
Abstract: Shilajatu is the important Ayurvedic drug having several therapeutic properties. After shodhan (proper purification) administration of Shilajatu gives miraculous benefits. Triphala a well-known Ayurvedic formulation has been taken for purifying Shilajatu owing to its tridosha shamaka and lekhana properties. It may act as synergistic to the properties of Shilajeet. Gomutra has been used since ages for holy rituals as well as for medicine purpose. Gomutra is considered to be a best remedy for obesity due to its kshariya and lekhana property. Hence Gomutra was taken as a shodhan media to purify the Shilajeet. Present study was carried out to observe the analytical difference between two different media.
Introduction : Apart from the mercury, the group which comes as the important one, in not only curing the ailments but also binding mercury in the maharasa group. There are eight members of maharasa which constitutes the group (RSS) and the one which is supposed to be used in using all the curable diseases is Shilajeet, which is the important member of this group. Though this drug Is included in the maharasa group, according to Anandkanda, but all the properties of rasa, uparasa, parada, ratna, lauha etc. are found together in this single drug, which not only make the body solid like iron but also acts as a rasayana which delay aging and even death (A.K.1/25). Shilajeet is an important herboniineral drug among the maharasa. Describing its importance Charaka has said, there is hardly any curable disease which cannot be alleviated or cured with the aid of Shilajeet (ClLChi.lo/65). Pharmacological proportion of Shilajeet have been elaborately explained by Acharya Charaka in chikitsa sthana 1-3/48. Further references of Shilajeet can be traced in Sushruta chikitsa sthana 13 /4-9, in Ashtanga Sangraha sutra sthana 12/ 27 – 28 and in Sharangadhara Madhyama khanda 11 / 94-95. In Ayurvedic texts a number of processes have been mentioned for tbe purification of Shilajeet. From these, in present study, the Shilajeet have been purified by the following two processes – (1) Purification in Gomutra and (2) Purification in Triphala kwatha. [ref RT].
Aim & Objectives :
1. To prepare Triphala shodhita Shilajeet and Gomutra shodhita Shilajeet in Rasashastra & Bhaishajya Kalpana Department.
2. To analyze both the sample i.e. Triphala shodhita Shilajeet and Gomutra shodhita Shilajeet.
Material & Methods:
Study is divided in two section
1) Pharmaceutical Study.
2) Analytical Study.
1. Pharmaceutical Study
Pharmaceutical study includes mainly preparation of crude drugs and pharmaceutical processing, process standardization in which drug ratio, drava quantity, intensity of fire and duration etc.
Practical study comprised of :
a. Preparation of Triphala Kwatha.
b. Shilajeet Shodhana by Triphala Kwatha.
c. Shilajeet Shodhana by Gomutra.
PREPARATION OF TRIPHALA KWATHA
REF.: General method of preparation of Kwatha….Sharngadhara Samhita
Materials Required : Stainless steel vessels, Gas stove, cloth, measuring jar, thermometer, Spatula.
Ingredients : Triphala Yavkuta churna = 02 Kg., Water = 16 litre
Method of preparation:
• 2 Kg. of Triphala Yavkuta churna was kept soaked in 16 litres of water for overnight.
• Next day it was boiled on mild heat without covering its mouth,
• Water was slowly evaporated and was reduced till the quantity became 1/4 th.
• It was filtered with clean cioth and filtered solution was collected as Triphala Kwatha.
• Triphala Yavkuta churna became soft when kept soaked for overnight
• It requires 98 ° C temperatures to boil the Triphala containing water.
• It required 6 hours of heating to reduce the solution to 1/4 th quantity
• The colour of prepared Kwatha was dark brown.
• Initial quantity of water taken = 16 litre.
• Final quantity of Kwatha obtained = 4 litre.
• Weight of Triphala Yavkut taken = 2 Kg
• Weight of Residue = 1.675 gm.
SHILAJEET SHODHANA by TRIPHALA KWATHA
Material required : Stainless steel vessels, gas stove, hot plate, knife, tray, weighing balance, measuring jar,cloth, thermometer, spatula.
1. Ashudha Shilajeet = 2 Kg.
2. Triphala Kwatha = 4 litre
• Ashuddha Shilajeet was powdered and added to hot Triphala Kwatha and was stirred for 20- 25 minutes with a spatula.
• Then Triphala Kwatha containing Ashuddha Shilajeet was heated and was continuously stirred till it completely dissolved in Triphala Kwatha. As this became thick paste 4 litres of hot water was further added.
• This was kept undisturbed for 24 hours. Next day the supernatant liquid was decanted and stored, whereas residual material was collected separately.
• In residual materials again hot water was added and mixed well and was kept undisturbed for another 24 hours.
• Next day the supernatant liquid was again decanted and residual matter was separated.
• This process was continued for 7 times and soluble matter from the residue was collected and stored.
• All the collected supernatant fluid was kept separately and was observed for further sedimentation. As all samples had sedimentation these were decanted till the soluble matter become clear.
• Then all the samples were mixed and was heated on mild fire at 70°C and watery portion was evaporated. The time taken for evaporation was noted down.
• Finally semi solid form of Shuddha Shilajeet was collected & kept in a air tight container,
• When 2 Kg. Of Ashuddha Shilajeet was mixed withTriphala Kwatha it became thick paste. So it was felt to add hot water to Triphala kwatha to dissolve Shilajeet completely.
• On adding hot water there was sedimentation of solid mass and supernatant fluid was decanted easily,
• The colour of supernatant fluid was dark brown and was thick in appearance.
• On further adding hot water to residual matter, the decanted fluid became light brown In colour and was dilute in nature.
• The initial residue obtained from the Triphala Kwatha was hard stone and gravel.
• Final residues obtained after repeated decantation was like mud & powdered form and was brown in colour.
1. Utensils & vessels used should be neat and clean to avoid adulteration.
2. Raw Shilajeet should be used in powdered form.
3. Triphala Kwatha should be prepared from Triphala Yavkuta.
4. Shilajeet should be filtered to remove large impurities after soaking it in Triphala Kwatha.
5. Temp, should be maintained around 70 ° C.
6. Continuous stirring should be done to avoid sticking.
7. Watery portion from Shilajeet should be evaporated by using water bath.
Initial weight of the raw Shilajeet = 2 Kg.
Final weight of the Shuddha Shilajeet obtained = 750gm.
Loss in weight = 125Qgm.
% yield = 37.50%
Total time taken for evaporation = 20.45 hours
SHILAJEET SHODHANA by GOMUTRA
Material required : Wide mouth steel vessels, gas stove, hot Plate, knife, tray, Weighing machine, instrument for pounding, measuring jar, clean cloth, thermometer, spatula.
1. Ashuddha Shilajeet = 2 Kg.
2.Gomutra = 4 liters.
• 2 Kg. Of Ashuddha Shilajeet was powdered and mixed to 4 liters of Gomulra and kept undisturbed for 24 hours.
• Next day supernatant Gomutra was decanted and filtered. The scdimented residual matter was again mixed with Gomutra & kept undisturbed for 24 hours.
• The obtained clear Gomutra Solution was again kept undisturbed and allowed for sedimentation, the supernatant fluid was stored in another vessel.
• All the decanted supernatant Gomutra was mixed together & kept for sedimentation. The sedimented residual matter was removed and clear Gomutra solution was collected.
• This process of sedimentation and removal of residual matter was continued till whole of the Gomutra became clear of all the impurities.
• The clear solution of Gomutra was then heated on miid heat of 70°C temp, till all of its watery portion evaporated.
• Finally semi-solid Ghana form of matter was collected as pure Shilajeet.
• pH of Gomutra was 8.
• When Ashuddha Shilajeet powder’’was mixed with Gomutra, a layer of foam formed over the Gomutra,
• The colour of the Gomutra changed to dark brown.
• The supernatant Gomutra solution obtained after decantation was thick in nature & dark brown in colour.
• After adding further Gomutra to residual matter of Shilajeet, the solution obtained was dilute and light in colour as compared to previous solution.
• The residue matters obtained after 1st decantation were hard stones and gravels. But in latter processes, mud like residue was collected.
• The obtained pure Shilajeet was bright brown in colour and had pungent smell of Gomutra
1. Utensils & vessels should be used neat and clean to avoid adulteration,
2. Shilajeet should be used in powder form.
3. Fresh Gomutra should be used.
4. Shilajeet should be filtered to remove large impurities after soaking in Gomutra.
5. Temperature should be maintained around 7Q°C.
6. Continuous stirring should be done to avoid sucking.
7. Water bath should be used to evaporate residue water from Shilajeet.
Initial weight of Raw Shilajeet = 2kg
Final wt. of Shuddha Shilajeet obtained = 450 gm
Loss in weight = 1550 gm
% yield -22.5%
Wt. of Residue obtained after drying = 1430 gm
Average temp, required for heating Gomutra – 70° C
Total time taken for evaporation = 19 hours
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
As mentioned in the materials and methods section, both the samples under study were analyzed chemically by employing various parameters and the results of the study is being presented in this section.
• The data of the weight variation test of the samples has been tabulated in Table – 1.
• The comparative analytical data of the samples has been presented in Table – 2.
The data presented in Table 2 reveals that ash value Is comparatively high in Triphala shodhita Shilajeet sample (14.1%) as compared to Gomutra shodhita Shilajeet sample (10.25%). There is considerable difference in water soluble extractive values. It is 94.4% in Triphala shodhita Shilajeet samples as compared to 77% in Gomutra shodhita Shilajeet sample.
• Ancient scholars like Charaka, Sushruta and Vagbhata have considered Shilajeet as an exudate of mountains of high altitudes and have classified it according to its mineral contents like – svamadrija, rajatadrija, tamradrija and lohadrija etc.
• Recent researches on Shilajeet has revealed that it is a vegetative product rather than a mineral product.
• Triphala a well-known Ayurvedic formulation has been taken for purifying Shilajeet owing to its tridosha shamaka and lekhana properties. It may act as synergistic to the properties of Shilajeet.
• Gomutra has been used since ages for holy rituals as well as for medicine purpose. Gomutra is considered to be a best remedy for obesity due to its kshariya and lekhana property. Hence Gomutra was taken as a shodhana media to purify the Shilajeet.
For the shodhana of Shilajeet with Triphala media, it requires atleast six times Tri kwatha. Similarly with Gomutra media, it requires six times Gomutra to purify Shilajt up to the mark. Shilajeet shodhana with Gomutra comparatively takes less time than Triphala kwatha. Shilajeet shodhana with Gomutra media takes 18 – 19 hours, where as with Triphala media takes minimum 20 hours for complete purification of Shilajeet. It requires around 70°C temperature with both Triphala kwatha and Gomutra media to extract shuddha Shilajeet from raw Shilajeet. Total yield of purified Shilajeet by Triphala media was 37%, whereas with Gomutra media it was only 22%.
Analytical study shows that Triphala shodhita Shilajeet takes lesser time for the disintegration in comparison with the Gomutra shodhita Shilajeet.
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